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How many servings of dairy should adults get every day?

Current Dietary Guidelines recommend those 9 years and older get three servings of dairy every day. The recommendation is two servings of dairy every day for children 2 – 3 years old and 2 ½ servings for children 4 – 8 years old. A serving is considered to be one of the following: 8 ounces... R… Learn More

Are there any sources of non-protein nitrogen in the cow feeding?

Yes and the amounts are highly controlled.  Non-protein nitrogen is simply nitrogen that is not incorporated into amino acids and protein.  The two biggest sources of non-protein nitrogen on our dairies are urea and haylage.  Particular quantities of non-protein nitrogen are necessary for rumen h… Learn More

Are cows fed Idaho Grown Crops?

A full 75% of the feed to the cows is Idaho grown. Mainly corn, alfalfa, and barley are grown in Idaho and fed to our cows. The other 25% are grain by-products following removal of certain human consumption products; examples, soy and canola meal following oil removal and cotton seed following cotto… Learn More

Will Milk Permeate Powder (MPP) be subject to Maillard Browning over time as happens with Whey Permeate Powder (WPP)? Are there applications where MPP might be more likely to undergo the browning reaction?

It is well known that Whey Permeate Powder (WPP) will undergo Maillard Browning over storage time. This is because WPP contains the milk sugar, lactose, which is a well-known reducing sugar along with free amino acids and short length, hydrolyzed protein peptides. In the manufacture of cheese, prote… Learn More

How does MPC eliminate acid whey waste?

High-protein or Greek-style yogurt made with MPC eliminates acid whey waste by straining skim milk solids before making yogurt and eliminating the need for a second straining step that generates acid whey after the yogurt is manufactured. When used at the optimal levels, the water binding properties… Learn More

What is Acid Whey?

Acid whey is a byproduct of making acid types of dairy products including high-protein or Greek-style yogurts made with a centrifuge method. In order to concentrate the yogurt, the whey is “strained” off. While acid whey can be used in limited quantities in many applications including animal fee… Learn More

What ratio of MPC and WPC is best for Greek-style yogurt?

It depends entirely on the desired yogurt protein content. We would recommend: 6.4% Protein Greek-style yogurt: 3.2% protein from the yogurt milk, 3.2% protein from MPC or an MPC/WPC blend. 100% MPC or a 90% MPC/10% WPC blend. 7.0% Protein Greek-style yogurt: 3.2% protein from the yogurt milk, 3.0% … Learn More

Is there a limit to how much MPC can be added to yogurt?

Yes. When MPC is utilized at higher levels in yogurt formulas, the casein starts to impart a gritty, grainy texture to the yogurt gel. This is not a significant problem with regular yogurts here in the USA or in Europe, as it is highly unlikely that a manufacturer would add MPC to their yogurt milk.… Learn More

Is MPC a good functional ingredient for use in Greek yogurt?

MPC is a valuable functional ingredient in Greek-style yogurt. The lowest protein content of the Greek yogurts for sale in the USA are 2 times regular yogurt protein content. If we look at regular yogurt as 3.2% protein, then Greek- style yogurts would have protein contents of 6.4% and up. If one wa… Learn More

Is MPC a functional ingredient for use in yogurt?

Yes. MPC is an excellent functional yogurt ingredient. MPC, having the same protein ratios as the milk from which yogurt is made, will not change the expected yogurt gel texture. It imparts the standard casein polymer gel that natural yogurt displays and not the starchy, gummy, custardy, pudding gel… Learn More

Is there a problem with adding too much Whey Protein to yogurt?

Yes. There are two primary problems: When whey proteins heat denature, disulfide cross bridging between molecules occurs and, with extreme heat, a release of sulfur also occurs. The yogurt pasteurizing step of 195° F for 8 to 10 minutes is extreme and can promote a release of sulfur. The released s… Learn More

Does WPC bind water as well as MPC?

No. Anyone who has seen 10% solids WPC dispersions knows that they’re water thin. So, yogurt manufacturers heat denature the added whey protein along with the whey proteins that are present in the yogurt milk. Heat denatured whey proteins bind significantly more water than do undenatured whey … Learn More

How do MPC and WPC compare in yogurt applications?

Prior to the introduction of MPC, WPC was commonly used throughout the yogurt industry as the functional protein ingredient to increase yogurt gel strength and decrease gel syneresis (wheying off). A number of dairy industry studies throughout the years have found an increase in yogurt gel strength … Learn More

What is the purpose of adding milk proteins to yogurt?

People add Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) and/or Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) to yogurt as functional ingredients. They are sometimes erroneously referred to as “stabilizers”. Prior to MPC being plentiful, it was noted that adding a protein product to yogurt milk did improve yogurt gel… Learn More

What percentage of rennet casein can be replaced with MPC/MPI in processed cheese type applications? What happens if you replace too much? When replacing rennet casein does it have to be MPI-85?

The amount of rennet casein that can be replaced with MPC/MPI depends on the type of processed cheese application and the expertise of the manufacturer. In general, almost every manufacturer should be able to replace one-third of their rennet casein requirement with MPC/MPI without any noticeable ch… Learn More

Why do we measure glutamic acid and not L-glutamine?

By the method used to run an amino acid assay, the amide group on glutamine is sheared off during the breaking of peptide bonds, changing the glutamine into glutamic acid. They are not the same thing…but by an amino acid assay, glutamine always shows up as glutamic acid. Unfortunately, it does… Learn More

What is the glutamine content of MPC?

Since MPC and MPI are made up of Casein and Whey Proteins, we can look at the glutamine content of each protein to get an idea of the glutamine content of the respective product. Whey protein is reputed to contain roughly 7% to 8% glutamine (per 100 grams of amino acids). Casein has a slightly... Re… Learn More

Does MPC/MPI powder change with age?

Yes. All high protein powders experience degrading chemical reactions as they age. When MPC/MPI powder ages, reactions such as residual fat hydrolysis, loss of solubility, and Maillard browning will continually progress. These chemical reactions are fueled by the concentration of the milk proteins i… Learn More

What are key factors that dictate stability?

The number one key factor is compatibility of the protein with the other ingredients in the system. For instance, excess free calcium is well known to cause a decrease in milk protein suspension stability and solubility. Sodium phosphate salts are well known to increase milk protein suspension stabi… Learn More

What is suspension stability and how is it measured?

The response to this question is dependent upon the context in which you are asking the question. In a laboratory situation, suspension stability is measured by dispersing a protein powder in ambient temperature water (10% w/w) and pouring the aqueous protein dispersion into a 100 ml graduated cylin… Learn More

Is solubility a reflection of quality?

Solubility of MPC/MPI is an important quality characteristic that determines how successful the product will be in various applications. This important product attribute can be affected by several process parameters including freshness of the raw milk prior to processing, processing conditions, and … Learn More

What are typical NSI and WPNI results for MPC powders?

In analyses by outside laboratories, NSI results for MPC powders were found to range from a low of 35 to a high of 72. NSI results for three separate lots of Idaho Milk Products’ IdaPro® MPC powders ranged from 67 to 72. An outside laboratory also analyzed MPC powders for WPNI. Typically, most MP… Learn More

How is solubility of Dairy Proteins measured?

Solubility of dairy proteins is measured by determining the quantity of protein nitrogen that is water soluble versus the quantity of protein nitrogen that is water insoluble. Proteins are long chains of amino acids. Nitrogen is part of the backbone of every amino acid. Therefore, to measure protein… Learn More

What exactly causes Maillard browning?

Maillard browning is a chemical reaction that usually occurs between amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and those carbohydrates known as reducing sugars – although the reaction has been known to occur between reducing sugars and whole proteins. In a Maillard reaction, the reactive carbon… Learn More

What is a Maillard Reaction?

The Maillard Reaction, or sometimes it is more commonly known as the Maillard Browning Reaction, is a chemical reaction between an amino acid (or a protein) and a reducing sugar. The two chemicals form a new compound that is significantly altered from a simple amino acid and a simple sugar. The new … Learn More

Are different heat treatments used in manufacturing MPCs?

YES. Different MPC manufacturers follow their own, unique processing methods. Just as milk powders can vary in heat exposure and heat damage from one manufacturer to another, MPCs can vary from one manufacturer to another. Milk powders are graded according to their heat exposure/damage by assaying t… Learn More

Does heat exposure affect the properties of an MPC?

Yes, depending on the amount of heat exposure, heat can cause properties of an MPC to change. That does not mean that heat will always cause changes in MPC properties. At standard food processing temperatures and hold times (example: 162°F for pasteurizing), MPC will undergo negligible to slightly … Learn More

Is there a way to avoid the problems of seasonal variation?

Yes, through proper herd management. It is possible to maintain a consistent balance in a dairy herd of the numbers of cows at all stages of the lactation cycle by practicing what is known as “herd rotation” – at any time during the 12 month calendar year, the same number of cows are at all...… Learn More

What is meant by “Seasonal Variation” of milk?

To understand seasonal variation of cow’s milk, one first needs to understand that all cow’s milk is produced by a cow as part of the mammalian lactation cycle for feeing of infant mammals. Once a cow begins the pregnancy cycle, the lactation cycle begins. When a calf is birthed (as with all mam… Learn More

Why does milk freshness matter?

Even at refrigerated temperatures, as milk sits around, reactions occur. Calcium and phosphorous will react with each other to form insoluble calcium phosphate salts and they will also react with the casein and whey proteins to decrease protein solubility. Fat in the milk will hydrolyze and oxidize,… Learn More

How is the quality of the protein in a consumer product assessed?

If one is talking about nutritional quality, it is difficult to accurately assess the nutritional quality of a single protein when it is mixed with other nutrients in a consumer product. For that reason, protein nutritional quality is usually assessed on a single protein without any additional nutri… Learn More

What is the L-glutamine content in IdaPro® MPI-85%?

By the method used to run an amino acid assay, the amide group on glutamine is sheared off during the breaking of peptide bonds, changing the glutamine into glutamic acid. They are not the same thing…but by an amino acid assay, glutamine always shows up as glutamic acid. Unfortunately, it does… Learn More

What is the difference between the D and L form of proteins?

D and L refer to the confirmation, or orientation, of molecules that make up amino acids that form proteins. While amino acid confirmation is difficult to determine in a lab, biological systems such as the human body are able to easily differentiate these two forms and will only use amino acids in t… Learn More

Why is Micellar Casein important?

Casein in its micellar form is a unique molecular structure. When we consume micellar form casein, a “bolus” (a large curd) is formed in our stomach as the micellar casein reacts with gastric juices in the stomach. The bolus takes on a unique structure also. Our stomachs and upper intestines pro… Learn More

What is a Casein Micelle?

The word “micelle” is a chemical term. It is used to describe the structure that certain very large molecules will form when dispersed in a solvent. Believe it or not, water is considered to be a solvent (chemicals are made soluble in water). Very large molecules are considered to be too large t… Learn More

What proteins are present in IdaPro® Milk Proteins?

Cow’s milk contains a balance of the casein proteins and the soluble serum proteins, more commonly known as whey proteins. Typically, milk from Idaho Milk Products’ cows will contain approximately 80% casein and 20% whey proteins along with a small amount of Non-Protein Nitrogen compounds. A… Learn More

Are there differences between various sources of Milk Proteins?

Yes. Flavor, texture, and functional properties of MPC/MPI powders can vary between manufacturers. Factors such as milk freshness, aggregate exposure to heat, and processing temperatures will all play an important role in sensory quality, water solubility, and functional properties of powders. IdaPr… Learn More

What is Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC)?

In March of 1992, the FDA Division of Regulatory Guidance issued an opinion letter after 18 months of study, that a product “made by the removal of non-protein components such as lactose, water, and minerals from skim milk by the ultrafiltration procedure, thereby concentrating the protein compone… Learn More