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What are the common methods of beverage processing?

  It’s important to have a basic understanding of how beverages are processed and what packaging options are available for your beverage type. The goal of any traditional beverage process is to create a product that meets the desired shelf-life by reducing the risk of microbial spoilage by thermally or chemically treating the beverage itself…

Dairy Protein: When Enough Protein Is Not Enough

As higher-protein diets for health and wellness continues to rise, “how much” and “which kind of proteins,” are often asked questions. Understanding optimal levels and types of proteins for the people who need it most can help food formulators meet consumer demand for better, personalized nutrition. Researchers also shed light on a growing body of…

Why do whey and casein work better together?

  Milk is a mixture of two major proteins, whey and casein. Whey protein is frequently sold as a stand-alone supplement or used as the sole protein source in meal replacements. However,  research has shown that leaving casein and whey together (as found in our milk protein powders) may have multiple benefits for your body.…

What type of milk protein concentrate (MPC) is best for high-protein shakes?

  Our IdaPro MPC-80 is an excellent protein source for high-protein shakes. MPC has a high-protein low-lactose ratio making it a great choice for protein-fortified beverages and low-lactose options. It is valuable in, but not limited to, protein-enrichment applications such as adult nutrition, sports nutrition and weight management. IdaPro MPC-80 has superior functional attributes: solubility,…

What type of milk protein concentrate (MPC) is best for high-protein ice cream?

  High-fat, low-carb, no-sugar-added protein ice cream is ideal for consumers looking for delicious and diet-friendly treats, especially those following the Keto or Atkins style diet. Our IdaPlus 1085, an enhanced, highly functional Milk Protein Concentrate, provides ice cream with faster dispersion and hydration, improved foam stability, higher water holding capacity, and moderate protein content…

Can I reduce the amount of shrinkage in ice cream by adding Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) or Milk Protein Isolate (MPI)?

Milk proteins contribute three important structural functions to ice cream. They emulsify the fat phase during homogenization to produce a stable emulsion in the mix state. Their subsequent interaction with emulsifiers during the aging process reduces the adsorbed protein level, thus producing a fat emulsion that is able to partially coalesce in ice cream and…

What are the advantages of milk proteins?

Milk proteins are value-added ingredients that offer food and beverage manufacturers great taste, unsurpassed nutrition and superior functionality in a variety of applications. Milk proteins have excellent solubility and emulsifying capabilities delivering enhanced texture, flavor and consistency. Milk proteins are high-quality and complete. Complete proteins are important because they contain all the amino acids required…

Can milk proteins be used in infant formula?

Great strides have been made in the production of nutritionally sound infant formulas, which mimic many of the major characteristics of human milk. Cow’s milk protein-based infant formulas are relied upon to provide optimal nutritional support for infants that, for a variety of reasons, cannot be, or are not, breastfed. While human milk is whey-predominant,…

Why does protein quality matter?

Protein quality is a key consideration when selecting high-protein containing ingredients. Protein plays an integral role in the body’s structure, function and regulation of tissues and organs. The body can make the protein it needs only if all the essential amino acids are available from the food that is consumed. While all animal-based and most…

What is the highest protein level of Milk Protein Isolate (MPI) available and what applications can it be used for?

IdaPro Milk Protein Isolate-90% (MPI-90). Water, lactose and minerals are reduced to achieve a protein content of 90% on a dry matter basis (casein and whey protein). IdaPro MPI-90 is valuable in high protein-enrichment applications such as ready to drink beverages, powder mixes and bars for adult nutrition, sports nutrition and weight management, particularly when…

Is Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) vegan?

As it is derived from milk, MPC is not vegan. However, dairy products are considered vegetarian. A vegan avoids all animal products, including eggs and dairy, while vegetarians tend to consume dairy products and eggs. Vegetarianism is usually a diet, while veganism is a lifestyle.

Can modifying calcium in an MPC/MPI have a positive effect on age gelation and sedimentation in RTDs and eliminate the need for SHMP?

Over the past decade or so, there has been an increase in demand for dairy-based, high-protein, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages. One problem that has plagued beverage formulators is the shelf life and viscosity. At Idaho Milk Products, we have found a way to improve these conditions dramatically while maintaining a high level of protein. through the…

What are uses for Milk Permeate Powder (MPP)?

Milk Permeate Powder (MPP) is a readily available food ingredient that can provide useful, cost effective solutions to meet today’s food formulations trends. MPP is an economical way to provide dairy flavor to many food systems. It can provide flavor enhancement, improve texture, cost savings, and browning for low sodium and other food applications. Popular…

Is dairy environmentally friendly?

While producing dairy foods requires natural resources such as energy, land and water so food can travel through the supply chain from farm to table, the dairy community takes environmental stewardship seriously and is committed to contributing to sustainable food systems. Becoming environmentally friendly is a journey that evolves with science and new innovations and…

Why does IdaPlus 1085 demonstrate 2-4 times higher gel strength in yogurt than other MPIs?

Due to proprietary processing, IdaPlus 1085 provides more serum phase casein than a standard MPC. The serum phase casein interacts with whey proteins better than casein micelles, which in turn provides a stronger network in a yogurt white mass, resulting in significantly higher gel strength.

How can I obtain a low-viscosity, high-protein drinking yogurt with superior shelf-life?

Post Fermentation shear is critical to obtain a low-viscosity in a drinking yogurt. To maintain this low-viscosity, it is important to control interactions between casein micelles over the shelf-life of the drinking yogurt. The only way viscosity builds over the shelf-life of a drinking yogurt is when casein to calcium phosphate interactions occur over time.…

Can the gradual return to higher viscosity after the shear process in drinking yogurts be mitigated?

Calcium phosphate in yogurt promotes the reforming of a casein gel after being sheared post fermentation, leading to higher viscosity. Lowering the amount of available calcium phosphate will inhibit the increase in viscosity. Our IdaPlus 1085 has been specially designed with less calcium phosphate and is perfect for preventing the aggregation of the casein micelles…

How can I maintain a low viscosity in my drinking yogurt?

Drinking yogurts achieve their initial low viscosity after the gel has set and the yogurt is subjected to a shear process, which breaks the interactions between the casein micelles. With standard MPCs/MPIs, over time, calcium phosphate found in the casein micelles will reform links that were broken during the shearing process, causing higher viscosity. The…

How can I reduce grittiness, graininess, and/or chalkiness in yogurt while increasing the amount of protein?

When adding protein to yogurt, the faster and more efficient the dispersion and hydration of the protein, the better the texture and appearance. Our functional IdaPlus 1085 protein offers significantly faster dispersion and hydration, including in colder temperatures, compared to standard MPCs. By using IdaPlus 1085, a yogurt manufacturer can expect to experience improved texture…

How can you increase shelf life in drinking yogurts while maintaining higher protein levels?

One of the most difficult challenges manufacturers of drinking yogurts face is maintaining low viscosity over shelf life because when standard MPCs/MPIs are used, the resetting of yogurt white mass (casein gel) occurs due to the reforming of casein to casein bonds. This resetting normally occurs in the first 24 hours post shear. In many…

Why should I use IdaPlus 1085 in my yogurt formulation?

There are several benefits that come from using IdaPlus 1085 in yogurt manufacturing. With better solubility that leads to a more efficient dispersion and hydration, lower buffering capacity, improved water holding capacity and stronger gel strength, a yogurt manufacturer can experience the following benefits: Improved texture and flavor attributes. Potential increased plant throughput from reduced…

What challenges occur in making yogurt with higher protein and can they be overcome?

Formulators frequently struggle with producing higher protein yogurts without a gritty or grainy mouthfeel and chalkiness. Our IdaPlus 1085 milk protein solves this dilemma with reduced calcium phosphate content, which opens up the structure of casein micelles, allowing for quicker dispersion and hydration. The dispersion of the proteins significantly reduces any graininess or chalkiness typically…

Is there a type of MPC that works best in Greek-style and traditional yogurt applications?

Our new IdaPlus 1085 is a functional protein that works extremely well in Greek-style and traditional yogurt applications where stronger gel set and less syneresis is desired. Due to proprietary processing, IdaPlus 1085 provides more serum phase casein than a standard MPC. The serum phase casein interacts with whey proteins better than casein micelles, which…

Is there a type of MPC that works best in drinking yogurt applications?

Our new IdaPlus 1085 is a functional protein that works extremely well in drinking yogurt applications. In drinking yogurts, even at higher protein levels, it delivers lower viscosity than standard MPCs and maintains it over the shelf life of the product. A reduction of calcium phosphate in IdaPlus 1085 decreases the number of casein interactions…

Why are dairy proteins so important to a balanced diet?

With an ever-increasing elderly population, sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with age, is becoming a serious global public health problem. Eating more protein such as lean meat, eggs and dairy products can help in the fight against gradual muscle loss. Current guidelines recommend three portions of dairy a day and, as well as keeping muscle…

Is there a type of MPC that works best in different yogurt applications (Drinking, Greek and Clean label Traditional Yogurts)?

Drinking Yogurts – IdaPlus 1085 improves viscosity, even at higher levels of protein, due to removal of minerals. Greek Yogurt – IdaPlus 1085 provides a stronger gel set and better texture with improved solubility. Clean Label Yogurts – IdaPlus 1085 provides a stronger gel set and better texture with improved solubility.

What are the nutritional differences between MPC/MPI and WPC/WPI?

Whey protein is fast-digesting, meaning the proteins empty from the stomach quickly, resulting in a rapid and substantial increase in amino acids, which aids in muscle synthesis. Casein protein, however, is slow-releasing. Casein consumption results in a prolonged increase in blood amino acids, which reduces muscle breakdown. Both whey and casein have nutritional advantages and…

How does heat stability compare in MPC/MPI vs WPC/WPI?

WPC is much less heat stable than MPC. When WPC is heated under ultra-high temperatures or retort conditions, the native whey unfolds and aggregates, causing gelling. Whey proteins also denature and lose solubility when exposed to ultra-high temperatures. As a result, WPCs cannot be used in large amounts in applications where a high heat step…

What are the flavor differences between MPC/MPI and WPC/WPI?

MPCs/MPIs have a clean, light, milky flavor compared to WPCs/WPIs. As WPC/WPIs are a byproduct of cheese production, they can have various off-flavors due to processing such as sourness, bitterness, and broth-like. These off-flavors result from high usage levels of sodium, potassium, and chlorine. Whey proteins may also bind volatile flavor compounds during processing. In…

Are the cows that supply milk to Idaho Milk Products given antibiotics? Does any of the milk used in the Idaho Milk Products factory contain antibiotics?

We do extensive antibiotic screening on every load of milk that arrives at Idaho Milk Products. If a load of milk is detected to contain antibiotics, that entire load of milk is rejected, as is required by law, and current protocol calls for sending that load to a digester for disposal. This program is FDA…

Are there any sources of non-protein nitrogen in the cow feeding?

Yes and the amounts are highly controlled.  Non-protein nitrogen is simply nitrogen that is not incorporated into amino acids and protein.  The two biggest sources of non-protein nitrogen on our dairies are urea and haylage.  Particular quantities of non-protein nitrogen are necessary for rumen health but should not be overused.  It is converted to ammonia…

Are cows fed Idaho Grown Crops?

A full 75% of the feed to the cows is Idaho grown. Mainly corn, alfalfa, and barley are grown in Idaho and fed to our cows. The other 25% are grain by-products following removal of certain human consumption products; examples, soy and canola meal following oil removal and cotton seed following cotton fiber removal.

Do I need to modify my product formula if I am replacing sweet whey powder (SWP) or skim milk powder/nonfat dry milk (SMP/NFDM) with Milk Permeate Powder (MPP)?

Sweet whey powder (SWP) and skim milk powder/nonfat dry milk (SMP/NFDM) both contain significant mineral content and mineral composition is similar to MPP. SWP is almost equivalent to MPP in mineral composition while SMP/NFDM possesses a higher calcium content than MPP. You should be able to substitute MPP for SWP directly without any change in…

Do I need to modify my product formula if I am replacing lactose with Milk Permeate Powder (MPP)?

In most food product applications, lactose is used as a dairy solids filler/texturizer. Since MPP is 82% lactose, it can act as an excellent replacement for lactose as a dairy solids filler/texturizer. The primary difference between MPP and lactose is that lactose does not contain milk minerals while MPP contains approximately 8% milk mineral content.…

Do I need to modify my product formula if I am replacing maltodextrin with Milk Permeate Powder (MPP)?

That would depend on the application, but in general, you will probably have to modify your product formula. Maltodextrin does not have a significant mineral content while MPP contains approximately 8% mineral content. A significant portion of the MPP mineral content comes from potassium, calcium, and magnesium. These minerals can interfere with gum stabilizing systems…

Will Milk Permeate Powder (MPP) be subject to Maillard Browning over time as happens with Whey Permeate Powder (WPP)? Are there applications where MPP might be more likely to undergo the browning reaction?

It is well known that WPP will undergo Maillard Browning over storage time. This is because WPP contains the milk sugar, lactose, which is a well-known reducing sugar, along with free amino acids and short length, hydrolyzed protein peptides. In the manufacture of cheese, protein hydrolysis occurs, leaving a remnant of free amino acids and…

What is the difference between the bound moisture content and the free moisture content of Milk Permeate? Why is that important to know?

Milk Permeate contains primarily alpha-monohydrate lactose crystals that have a characteristic tomahawk-like shape. These crystals are very hard and brittle. Milk permeate also contains all the mother liquor which is typically separated out of refined lactose. This mother liquor is made up of denatured casein and smaller whey proteins, vitamins, and minerals. In its crystalline…

How do MPC and WPC compare in Ready-to-Drink (RTD) beverage applications?

For purposes of this discussion, ready-to-drink (RTD) beverages will refer to that group of protein-fortified beverages that are shelf stable, i.e., do not require refrigeration for storage and transportation. RTD beverages all have one thing in common no matter how they have been processed. Microbiological assays on RTD beverages yield values of zero or none…

How does MPC eliminate acid whey waste?

High-protein or Greek-style yogurt made with MPC eliminates acid whey waste by straining skim milk solids before making yogurt and eliminating the need for a second straining step that generates acid whey after the yogurt is manufactured. When used at the optimal levels, the water binding properties and flavor attributes of MPC result in creamy,…

What is Acid Whey?

Acid whey is a byproduct of making acid types of dairy products including high-protein or Greek-style yogurts made with a centrifuge method. In order to concentrate the yogurt, the whey is “strained” off. While acid whey can be used in limited quantities in many applications including animal feed and fertilizer, the quantity produced by many…

Which milk protein, WPC or MPC, produces a realistic flavor in yogurt?

We can definitely say that MPC will contribute to a more realistic milky and yogurt flavor than will WPC. Whey proteins are not primary to yogurt…in authentic, old fashioned 3.2% protein yogurt without stabilizers, the whey proteins are present only at a level of 0.58% while casein is present in the yogurt at a level…

What ratio of MPC and WPC is best for Greek-style yogurt?

It depends entirely on the desired yogurt protein content. We would recommend: 6.4% Protein Greek-style yogurt: 3.2% protein from the yogurt milk, 3.2% protein from MPC or an MPC/WPC blend. 100% MPC or a 90% MPC/10% WPC blend. 7.0% Protein Greek-style yogurt: 3.2% protein from the yogurt milk, 3.0% milk protein from MPC, and 0.8%…

What if a yogurt manufacturer wants to make a high protein Greek-style yogurt?

If a manufacturer wants to make a Greek-style yogurt with a protein content above 6.4%, we suggest using WPC in combination with MPC to obtain the remainder of desired protein fortification above 6.4%. As with regular yogurt, the MPC will provide realistic yogurt gel texture and bind water for prolonged shelf life of the yogurt…

Is there a limit to how much MPC can be added to Greek-style yogurt?

Yes. Some practical yogurt industry work has shown that, in combination with proper stabilizers, MPC can be used to fortify 3.2% protein milk up to about 6.4% protein yogurt milk without a corresponding loss of gel smoothness. At fortification levels above 6.4%, resultant yogurt gels start to become grainy in texture, losing the smooth mouthfeel…

Is there a limit to how much MPC can be added to yogurt?

Yes. When MPC is utilized at higher levels in yogurt formulas, the casein starts to impart a gritty, grainy texture to the yogurt gel. This is not a significant problem with regular yogurts here in the USA or in Europe, as it is highly unlikely that a manufacturer would add MPC to their yogurt milk…

Is MPC a good functional ingredient for use in Greek yogurt?

MPC is a valuable functional ingredient in Greek-style yogurt. The lowest protein content of the Greek yogurts for sale in the USA are 2 times regular yogurt protein content. If we look at regular yogurt as 3.2% protein, then Greek- style yogurts would have protein contents of 6.4% and up. If one wants to manufacture…

Is MPC a functional ingredient for use in yogurt?

Yes. MPC is an excellent functional yogurt ingredient. MPC, having the same protein ratios as the milk from which yogurt is made, will not change the expected yogurt gel texture. It imparts the standard casein polymer gel that natural yogurt displays and not the starchy, gummy, custardy, pudding gel that many over-stabilized yogurts today exhibit.…

Is there a problem with adding too much Whey Protein to yogurt?

Yes. There are two primary problems: When whey proteins heat denature, disulfide cross bridging between molecules occurs and, with extreme heat, a release of sulfur also occurs. The yogurt pasteurizing step of 195° F for 8 to 10 minutes is extreme and can promote a release of sulfur. The released sulfur has been shown to…

Does WPC bind water as well as MPC?

No. Anyone who has seen 10% solids WPC dispersions knows that they’re water thin. So, yogurt manufacturers heat denature the added whey protein along with the whey proteins that are present in the yogurt milk. Heat denatured whey proteins bind significantly more water than do undenatured whey proteins. Heat denatured whey proteins do not, however,…

How do MPC and WPC compare in yogurt applications?

Prior to the introduction of MPC, WPC was commonly used throughout the yogurt industry as the functional protein ingredient to increase yogurt gel strength and decrease gel syneresis (wheying off). A number of dairy industry studies throughout the years have found an increase in yogurt gel strength and a decrease in syneresis in WPC-fortified yogurts…

What is the purpose of adding milk proteins to yogurt?

People add Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) and/or Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) to yogurt as functional ingredients. They are sometimes erroneously referred to as “stabilizers”. Prior to MPC being plentiful, it was noted that adding a protein product to yogurt milk did improve yogurt gel stability (shelf life). The higher the viscosity of the protein in…

In processed cheese or cheese analog applications, which type of milk protein does MPC/MPI best replace?

IdaPro MPC/MPI is best used in processed cheese or analog cheese applications to replace caseinates. MPC/MPI can only be used to replace a percentage of rennet casein in those applications before changes in product texture or melt properties become significant. Almost every manufacturer should be able to replace one-third of their rennet casein requirement with…

What percentage of rennet casein can be replaced with MPC/MPI in processed cheese type applications? What happens if you replace too much? When replacing rennet casein does it have to be MPI-85?

The amount of rennet casein that can be replaced with MPC/MPI depends on the type of processed cheese application and the expertise of the manufacturer. In general, almost every manufacturer should be able to replace one-third of their rennet casein requirement with MPC/MPI without any noticeable changes in product quality. If one replaces too much…

Why do we measure glutamic acid and not L-glutamine?

By the method used to run an amino acid assay, the amide group on glutamine is sheared off during the breaking of peptide bonds, changing the glutamine into glutamic acid. They are not the same thing…but by an amino acid assay, glutamine always shows up as glutamic acid. Unfortunately, it doesn’t help that the body…

Are any additives used during the filtration process when producing MPI-85 Low Lactose?

Yes. Cold filtration manufacture of IdaPro MPI-85% results in a product with approximately 3.6% lactose. To deliver a product with less than 1% lactose, we utilize a very small amount of lactase enzyme which reduces the disaccharide lactose to its component sugars of glucose and galactose, resulting in a product with a typical analysis of…

If high heat skim milk powder (or NFDM) is used in baking application, how can we claim that IdaPro® MPC powder, which is more like a low heat powder, is also applicable for baking?

First, it is necessary to understand that high heat NFDM is only required for use in some baking applications…not all baking applications. In certain baking applications, high heat treated milk powder is required because whey proteins, in low heat treated powders, that denature during the baking process will interfere with desired final properties of the…

What is the glutamine content of MPC?

Since MPC and MPI are made up of Casein and Whey Proteins, we can look at the glutamine content of each protein to get an idea of the glutamine content of the respective product. Whey protein is reputed to contain roughly 7% to 8% glutamine (per 100 grams of amino acids). Casein has a slightly…

Will IdaPro MPC/MPI behave differently in my application than other powders?

In many cases, yes. You will probably find that IdaPro MPC/MPI delivers a better flavor and more soluble mouthfeel than other MPC/MPI powders. For example, manufacturers of high protein Ready to Drink products have found that they can decrease added flavoring levels and decrease stabilizing salt levels when they use IdaPro MPC/MPI powders compared to…

Does MPC/MPI powder change with age?

Yes. All high protein powders experience degrading chemical reactions as they age. When MPC/MPI powder ages, reactions such as residual fat hydrolysis, loss of solubility, and Maillard browning will continually progress. These chemical reactions are fueled by the concentration of the milk proteins in close proximity with milk minerals and remaining sugar as well as…

What is the difference between solubility and suspension stability?

Very little; but there are some differences. It is possible to have a protein powder that is highly soluble but displays poor suspension stability. Conversely, it is also possible to encounter a protein powder with good suspension stability and relatively low solubility. Suspension stability is really a measure of how well the powder stays suspended…

What are key factors that dictate stability?

The number one key factor is compatibility of the protein with the other ingredients in the system. For instance, excess free calcium is well known to cause a decrease in milk protein suspension stability and solubility. Sodium phosphate salts are well known to increase milk protein suspension stability and solubility. Probably the second most important…

What is suspension stability and how is it measured?

The response to this question is dependent upon the context in which you are asking the question. In a laboratory situation, suspension stability is measured by dispersing a protein powder in ambient temperature water (10% w/w) and pouring the aqueous protein dispersion into a 100 ml graduated cylinder. One then observes how long it takes…

Is solubility a reflection of quality?

Solubility of MPC/MPI is an important quality characteristic that determines how successful the product will be in various applications. This important product attribute can be affected by several process parameters including freshness of the raw milk prior to processing, processing conditions, and length/conditions of storage. In order to maximize MPC solubility it’s important to minimize…

What are typical NSI and WPNI results for MPC powders?

In analyses by outside laboratories, NSI results for MPC powders were found to range from a low of 35 to a high of 72. NSI results for three separate lots of Idaho Milk Products’ IdaPro® MPC powders ranged from 67 to 72. An outside laboratory also analyzed MPC powders for WPNI. Typically, most MPC powders…

When talking about protein properties, what is NSI and what is WPNI?

These two terms are usually used in conjunction with discussions of protein solubility. NSI stands for Nitrogen Solubility Index and is expressed as a percentage of the protein nitrogen that is water soluble relative to the total protein nitrogen present. For example, if 75% of the total nitrogen contained in a protein is found by…

How is solubility of Dairy Proteins measured?

Solubility of dairy proteins is measured by determining the quantity of protein nitrogen that is water soluble versus the quantity of protein nitrogen that is water insoluble. Proteins are long chains of amino acids. Nitrogen is part of the backbone of every amino acid. Therefore, to measure protein solubility, one needs only to measure the…

What are the sensory properties of Milk Protein Concentrate and Isolate?

Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC) and Milk Protein Isolate (MPI) is usually sold as a fine, white powder. In water, MPC/MPI forms a white, opaque dispersion of low viscosity – looking very similar to milk. MPC/MPI will remain suspended for prolonged periods of time in water. A well manufactured MPC/MPI will have no odor and a…

What do you mean when you say that the protein remains highly functional?

Usually, when one talks about protein function, it is in reference to the metabolic fate of the protein once in the bloodstream and/or the protein’s functional properties as a food ingredient/stabilizer. So, when we say that the protein remains highly functional, we are referring to the protein’s ability to affect metabolic pathways in the body…

What exactly causes Maillard browning?

Maillard browning is a chemical reaction that usually occurs between amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and those carbohydrates known as reducing sugars – although the reaction has been known to occur between reducing sugars and whole proteins. In a Maillard reaction, the reactive carbonyl group of a reducing sugar molecule reacts with the…

What is a Maillard Reaction?

The Maillard Reaction, or sometimes it is more commonly known as the Maillard Browning Reaction, is a chemical reaction between an amino acid (or a protein) and a reducing sugar. The two chemicals form a new compound that is significantly altered from a simple amino acid and a simple sugar. The new compound may exhibit…

Are different heat treatments used in manufacturing MPCs?

Yes. Different MPC manufacturers follow their own, unique processing methods. Just as milk powders can vary in heat exposure and heat damage from one manufacturer to another, MPCs can vary from one manufacturer to another. Milk powders are graded according to their heat exposure/damage by assaying the powders for undenatured whey protein nitrogen. The powders…

When you talk low heat, to what temperature is the product heated?

The U.S. Government requires that all milk used for further processing be pasteurized (unless one has a raw milk license). Therefore, prior to processing the skim milk into MPI/MPS, we pasteurize the milk using high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions (72°C for 22 seconds). Everyone around the world does this. The skim milk is immediately cooled back…

Does heat exposure affect the properties of an MPC?

Yes, depending on the amount of heat exposure, heat can cause properties of an MPC to change. That does not mean that heat will always cause changes in MPC properties. At standard food processing temperatures and hold times (example: 162°F for pasteurizing), MPC will undergo negligible to slightly perceptible changes. At higher temperatures above 180°F…

Are there other factors that can cause variations in milk composition?

Yes, feed composition is a large determinant factor of cow’s milk quality/ consistency. Have you heard the old saying … “You are what you eat”? Well, this saying holds especially true for cows. The quality of milk produced by a cow is determined by what the cow eats. A cow produces milk from the components…

Is there a way to avoid the problems of seasonal variation?

Yes, through proper herd management. It is possible to maintain a consistent balance in a dairy herd of the numbers of cows at all stages of the lactation cycle by practicing what is known as “herd rotation” – at any time during the 12 month calendar year, the same number of cows are at all…

What is meant by “Seasonal Variation” of milk?

To understand seasonal variation of cow’s milk, one first needs to understand that all cow’s milk is produced by a cow as part of the mammalian lactation cycle for feeing of infant mammals. Once a cow begins the pregnancy cycle, the lactation cycle begins. When a calf is birthed (as with all mammal births) the…

Why does milk freshness matter?

Even at refrigerated temperatures, as milk sits around, reactions occur. Calcium and phosphorous will react with each other to form insoluble calcium phosphate salts and they will also react with the casein and whey proteins to decrease protein solubility. Fat in the milk will hydrolyze and oxidize, modifying the flavor characteristics of all of the…

How is the quality of the protein in a consumer product assessed?

If one is talking about nutritional quality, it is difficult to accurately assess the nutritional quality of a single protein when it is mixed with other nutrients in a consumer product. For that reason, protein nutritional quality is usually assessed on a single protein without any additional nutrients present. Such assays include Relative Protein Efficiency…

What is the difference between a Milk Protein Concentrate or Isolate and Whey Protein Concentrate or Isolate?

The term, Milk Protein Concentrate, was modeled after the already existing name for protein that had been concentrated from cheese whey by ultrafiltration, Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC). In spite of the fact that MPC is significantly different from WPC, many people today continue to confuse the two. As per the FDA opinion, a Milk Protein…

What is the L-glutamine content in IdaPro® MPI-85%?

By the method used to run an amino acid assay, the amide group on glutamine is sheared off during the breaking of peptide bonds, changing the glutamine into glutamic acid. They are not the same thing…but by an amino acid assay, glutamine always shows up as glutamic acid. Unfortunately, it doesn’t help that the body…

What is the difference between the D and L form of proteins?

D and L refer to the confirmation, or orientation, of molecules that make up amino acids that form proteins. While amino acid confirmation is difficult to determine in a lab, biological systems such as the human body are able to easily differentiate these two forms and will only use amino acids in the L-conformation to…

What is the difference between Milk Protein Concentrate and Milk Protein Isolate?

There is very little difference between an MPC and an MPI—If both are truly filtered products…ultrafiltration, microfiltration, etc. A truly filtered MPI (90% protein dry basis—about 86% protein “as is” basis) contains a higher protein content than an MPC 80 (80% protein minimum “as is” basis) or MPC 85 (82.5% protein minimum “as is” basis).…

What is the meaning of “as is” protein content versus “dry basis” protein content?

If you’re confused, you’re not alone! When speaking of protein contents, the only protein content (powder or liquid) that should concern a food processor is the “as is” protein content. Many protein manufacturers try to make their protein powder compositions look better by providing a “dry basis” protein content – the percent of protein based…

If most of the protein in MPC is casein, can MPC be used in food products in place of casein or caseinates?

In most cases, yes, you can use MPC/MPI to replace casein and/or caseinates in food formulations. Obviously, since MPC/MPI forms water dispersions that are most similar in appearance to calcium caseinate, one can easily substitute MPC/MPI into any calcium caseinate application. Usually, substituting MPC/MPI for calcium caseinate will result in an improvement in food product…

Can I expect the same metabolic benefits of Micellar Casein from consumption of casein or caseinates?

No. The metabolic benefits attributed to micellar casein consumption will not automatically transfer over to casein/caseinate consumption. As stated in the response above, many of the digestive enzymes are site specific and require a certain structure to perform. Acid casein and/or rennet casein have already been precipitated as a curd from milk as part of…

Why is Micellar Casein important?

Casein in its micellar form is a unique molecular structure. When we consume micellar form casein, a “bolus” (a large curd) is formed in our stomach as the micellar casein reacts with gastric juices in the stomach. The bolus takes on a unique structure also. Our stomachs and upper intestines produce enzymes to help speed…

What is a Casein Micelle?

The word “micelle” is a chemical term. It is used to describe the structure that certain very large molecules will form when dispersed in a solvent. Believe it or not, water is considered to be a solvent (chemicals are made soluble in water). Very large molecules are considered to be too large to be truly…

What proteins are present in IdaPro® and IdaPlus Milk Proteins?

Cow’s milk contains a balance of the casein proteins and the soluble serum proteins, more commonly known as whey proteins. Typically, milk from Idaho Milk Products’ cows will contain approximately 80% casein and 20% whey proteins along with a small amount of Non-Protein Nitrogen compounds. A well manufactured MPC/MPI will contain a ratio of casein…

Are there differences between various sources of Milk Proteins?

Yes. Flavor, texture, and functional properties of MPC/MPI powders can vary between manufacturers. Factors such as milk freshness, aggregate exposure to heat, and processing temperatures will all play an important role in sensory quality, water solubility, and functional properties of powders. IdaPro MPC/MPIs are manufactured from the freshest milk and are exposed to a minimum…

What is Milk Protein Concentrate (MPC)?

In March of 1992, the FDA Division of Regulatory Guidance issued an opinion letter after 18 months of study, that a product “made by the removal of non-protein components such as lactose, water, and minerals from skim milk by the ultrafiltration procedure, thereby concentrating the protein components to higher levels” could be called a milk…